Republished with permission from medicalnewstoday.com.
Your first memory of Brussels sprouts may be of feeding them to the dog under the table, being careful to make sure your mom didn’t catch you. Little did you know, Fido didn’t care for them either, and mom ended up having to sweep them up at the end of the evening.
Brussels sprouts have a bad reputation, but even if you’ve had a bad experience with them in the past, they’re worth giving another shot – just don’t boil them to death like your mother did. Oven-roasting Brussels sprouts brings out their sweet, almost nutty flavor and keeps them crisp while diminishing the harsh, sulfurous odor and taste that many find offensive.
Brussels sprouts are surprisingly high in protein for a green vegetable, and just one serving would meet your needs for vitamin C and vitamin K for the day.
Brussels sprouts are a part of the cruciferous vegetable family, which also includes the nutritional powerhouses kale, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and collard greens, all of which supply loads of nutrients for a small amount calories. If you are trying to improve your diet, cruciferous vegetables should be at the very top of your grocery list.
This MNT Knowledge Center feature is part of a collection of articles on the health benefits of popular foods. It provides a nutritional breakdown of Brussels sprouts and an in-depth look at its possible health benefits, how to incorporate more Brussels sprouts into your diet and any potential health risks of consuming Brussels sprouts.
Nutritional Breakdown of Brussels Sprouts
Brussels sprouts are among the top 20 most nutritious foods in regards to ANDI score (Aggregate Nutrient Density Index), which measures vitamin, mineral and phytonutrient content in relation to caloric content.
To earn high rank, a food must provide a high amount of nutrients for few calories.
According to the USDA National Nutrient Database, one cup of raw Brussels sprouts (about 88 grams) provides only 38 calories, 0 grams of fat, 8 grams of carbohydrate (including 3 grams of sugar and 2 grams of fiber) and 3 grams of protein.
Possible Health Benefits of Consuming Brussels Sprouts
Consuming fruits and vegetables of all kinds has long been associated with a reduced risk of many adverse health conditions. Many studies have suggested that increasing consumption of plant foods like Brussels sprouts decreases the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and overall mortality while promoting a healthy complexion, increased energy, and overall lower weight.
Since the 1980s, consuming high amounts of cruciferous vegetables like Brussels sprouts has been associated with a lower risk of cancer. More recently, researchers have been able to pinpoint that the sulfur-containing compounds (namely sulforaphane) that give cruciferous vegetables their bitter bite are also what give them their cancer-fighting power.
More studies with sulforaphane are testing its ability to delay or impede cancer. Promising results have been seen with multiple types of cancers including melanoma, esophageal, prostate and pancreatic.
Researchers have discovered that sulforaphane has the power to inhibit the harmful enzyme histone deacetylase (HDAC), known to be involved in the progression of cancer cells. The ability to stop HDAC enzymes could make sulforaphane-containing foods a potentially powerful part of cancer treatment in the future.1
Brussels sprouts also contain a high amount of chlorophyll, which can block the carcinogenic effects of heterocyclic amines generated when grilling meats at a high temperature. If you tend to like your grilled foods charred, make sure to pair them with green vegetables to decrease your risk.2
Improving bone health
Low intakes of vitamin K have been associated with a higher risk for bone fracture. Adequate vitamin K consumption (which just ¾ cup of Brussels sprouts provides) improves bone health by acting as a modifier of bone matrix proteins, improving calcium absorption and reducing urinary excretion of calcium.3
Brussels sprouts also contribute to your daily need for calcium, providing 37 milligrams in one cup.
Many green vegetables contain an antioxidant known as alpha-lipoic acid that has been shown to lower glucose levels, increase insulin sensitivity and prevent oxidative stress-induced changes in patients with diabetes. Studies on alpha-lipoic acid have also shown decreases in peripheral neuropathy or autonomic neuropathy in diabetics.
Of note, most studies have used intravenous alpha-lipoic acid, and it is unsure whether oral supplementation would elicit the same benefits.4
Making sure you get your daily requirement of vitamin C has been shown to help keep eyes healthy by providing increased protection against UV light damage.6
Eating just one serving of Brussels sprouts per day would ensure you are getting enough of this important nutrient. Another antioxidant in Brussels sprouts, zeaxanthin, filters out harmful blue light rays and is thought to play a protective role in eye health and possibly ward off damage from macular degeneration.5,6
A higher intake of all fruits and vegetables (3 or more servings per day) has also been shown to decrease the risk of and progression of age-related macular degeneration.
The antioxidant vitamin C, when eaten in its natural form (in fresh produce as opposed to supplement form) or applied topically, can help to fight skin damage caused by the sun and pollution, reduce wrinkles and improve overall skin texture. Vitamin C plays a vital role in the formation of collagen, the main support system of skin.
You may automatically reach for citrus fruits when you think of vitamin C, but Brussels sprouts provide a whopping 75 milligrams per cup, over 100% of your daily need. Vitamin A is also crucial for healthy looking skin, which Brussels sprouts also provide.
How to Incorporate More Brussels Sprouts into Your Diet
Try to find sprouts still on the stalk for superior freshness and look for sprouts that are smaller in size, which tend to be sweeter, more tender and have a less woody or fibrous taste then larger sprouts.
Make sure the leaves are tight and firm; loose leaves indicate older sprouts. Store the sprouts in a bag in the refrigerator. The fresher the sprouts, the better they will taste. The most important thing is to not overcook them, which tends to give them a bitter flavor and diminishes their nutritional value. Roasting Brussels sprouts in the oven will help bring out their best flavor and retain their bright green color.
Quick tips to enjoy Brussels sprouts:
- Keep it simple and drizzle the roasted sprouts with olive oil, cracked black pepper and minced garlic
- Slice them thin and mix in raw with salad greens
- Add candied walnuts and dried cranberries to roasted sprouts for a festive holiday side dish
- Pan fry sliced Brussels sprouts to get a crunchier texture.
Or try this recipe from our friend Dr. Frank Lipman!
Roasted Brussel Sprouts with Tahini Dressing:
Prep time: 10 minutes
Cook time: 40 minutes
Serves: 4 -5
For the sprouts:
- 2 cups Brussels sprouts
- Olive oil – enough to lightly coat the sprouts
- Pinch of sea salt
- Pinch of black pepper
For the tahini dressing:
- ¼ cup tahini
- 1 teaspoon maple syrup
- 1 tablespoon wheat-free tamari
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
- 1 garlic clove
- Juice of 1 lemon
- About ¼ cup water (depending on how thick you want your dressing)
- 1 pinch cayenne or red pepper flakes (optional)Preheat oven to 375.
- Wash and cut the ends off of the brussels sprouts, removing the outer layer of leaves. Roast for about 40 minutes or until sprouts are golden brown.
- Add all the tahini ingredients into a blender and blend until smooth. Add more water for a thinner dressing.
- When Brussels sprouts are done cooking, drizzle them generously with tahini and enjoy!
Potential Health Risks of Consuming Brussels Sprouts
If you are taking blood-thinners such as Coumadin (warfarin) it is important that you do not suddenly begin to eat more or less foods containing vitamin K, which plays a large role in blood clotting.
Please note that it is the total diet or overall eating pattern that is most important in disease prevention and achieving good health. It is better to eat a diet with a variety than to concentrate on individual foods as the key to good health.
- Powerful prostate cancer fighters — from arugula to wasabi, cruciferous veggies pack a powerful punch, Densie Webb, PhD, RD, Today’s Dietitian, Vol. 13 No. 10 P. 20, October 2011 Issue, accessed 8 September 2014.
- Anticancer compounds found in food, Machowsky, Jason, MS, RD, CDN, CSCS, Nutrition 411, last reviewed February 2012, accessed 8 September 2014.
- Bone health: Looking beyond calcium, Nutrition 411, last reviewed March 2009, accessed 8 September 2014.
- Alpha-lipoic acid, Nutrition 411, last reviewed August 2012, accessed 3 June 2014.
- The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: A review based on controversial evidence, Maneli Mozaffarieh, Stefan Sacu and Andreas Wedrich, Nutrition Journal, 2003, 2:20, accessed 9 April 2014.
- Eating for eye health, Getz, Lindsey, Today’s Dietitian, Vol. 11 No. 9 P. 12, September 2009 Issue, accessed 24 September 2014.
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